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Friday, April 29, 2011

Multicast Distribution Trees - Source and Shared Tree

Multicast Distribution Trees

In this section, We will discuss about Multicast distribution Trees /  Design Models.
Multicast Distribution Tress is classified in two types. Source and Shared tree.

Source Tree – In this type of Multicast topology, Multicast Source will be on Top of Multicast Tree (Logically, source will be the first one and other receivers will be Tree branches) and other Multicast enabled routes will be acting like branches.

Deployment of Source Tree is very Easy.  It is recommended for small Networks.

In Source Tree, forwarding of packets based on shortest path. It is based on both the Source Address that the packets originated from and the Group address G that the packets are addressed to.
For this reason we refer to the forwarding state on the SPT by the notation (S, G) (pronounced “S comma G”).
Where S and G stands for:
“S” is the Source IP address.
 “G” is the multicast group address
Example 1:
The shortest path between Source 1 and Receiver 1 is via Routers A and C, and shortest path to Receiver 2 is A, C and E.

In this mode, the Tree is formed based on Source. That’s why it is known as Source Tree.

Shared Tree:

This Multicast Design is used in Large Enterprises and Service Provider Networks. It is widely acceptable in industry. In this topology all multicast source Register themselves to one Centre point known as RP (Rendezvous point) , this is very important in network. As the host request for any multicast stream, this time concern router will send that request to mapped RP. The RP will redirect it to source. No need to maintain any (S, G) entry every time. Only, we have to make sure that our unicast routing is proper and router is reachable to RP. Basically it is reducing the burden to searching the multicasting stream by own. In this way, Multicast is managed centrally. We can designate as many RP in network for redundancy.
Check the diagram for more understanding

In this topology, you can find we have one RP in network. Which is acting as centre point, As the request comes to Router C or Router D. It will send to RP, RP will redirect it to concern source.
                Same time in case of, When Receiver 1 wants to reach Source 1. In that case first Router C will forward that request to Router D (RP). It will inform that router, that you can go to Router A, which is directly reachable to you. In this way, no need to go every time from RP. RP is only for redirecting us. But when Receiver 2 wants to access source 2, this time RP (Router D) will be every time responsible for this communication.
                Hope this explanation will help you understand distribution trees. It’s just a design model..
PIM-Dense mode uses Source tree model and PIM – Sparse mode uses Shared Tree model.

                We will discuss it this in next session, Plz let me know your views on this post... For any queries.. Plz put comments with mail id.. 

Multicast Basics

Till now we discussed about, Multicast and about advantages and disadvantages. Now let’s see some Multicast basics. Which is very important in real time to deal with multicast , we will discuss about Multicast address ranges and reservations.

A single host can join multiple Multicast group at same time. ( We can open as many applications on our PC , In same time it will access different multicast groups)
The source will not come to know, who are receivers / host.

Multicast Address Range

  • The range of Multicast IP address is Class D – –
  • Address assignments from within this range are specified in RFC 5771.
  • In this range, – is reserved for Network local (communication) address.
  • is reserved for Source-Specific Multicast
  • is reserved for GLOP addressing
  • is Private range for Multicast address, AKA Administratively scoped address.
  •  The First four bits of Multicast IP address is 1110.

Well known Multicast addresses - – All OSPF routers – All OSPF DR’s – All RIPv2 routers – All EIGRP/ IRMP routers – NTP – All Multicast hosts ( If you ping this IP address, The multicast capable host will reply) – All Multicast Routers – All DVMRP Routers – All PIM Routers

Hope this information is helpful for you ... Plz let me konw in case of any queries with mail id. 

Multicasting - Advantages and Disadvantages

 In this section, We will discuss about Multicast, advantages and disadvantages. Till now we have seen what is multicasting and what are the benefits of  using multicasting in network.
Now let’s start with Multicast advantages -

Multicast Advantages:
Available network bandwidth is utilized more efficiently since single stream of data are replaced with a multiple streams locally by using multicast. It will increase the productivity. Below you can see the graph. This will help you to analyse the benefit for Multicast over Unicast.

 Let’s see multicast Disadvantages -
Multicast Disadvantages

Multicast is UDP-based

  Best-effort delivery: Drops are to be expected. Multicast application must not expect reliable delivery of data and should be designed accordingly. Reliable multicast applications will address this issue.

  No congestion avoidance: The lack of the TCP windowing and "slow-start" mechanisms can result in network congestion. If possible, multicast applications should attempt to detect and avoid congestion conditions.

  Duplicates: some multicast protocol mechanisms result in the occasional generation of duplicate packets. Multicast applications should be designed to expect occasional duplicate packets.

  Out-of-sequence delivery: Network topology changes affect the order of delivery -- the application must properly address the issue.

Now we completed, Multicast advantages and disadvantages. It will help you to decide, will it be beneficial for your company/requirements.
For my opinion -
Multicasting is more efficient means, delivering of content where a single sender needs to deliver the content to multiple receivers. This task may be achieved through the use of multicast groups.

If you like the post.. and for any queries, Plz put comments with your mail id. Will try to revert you soon. 

Thursday, April 28, 2011


This Section, I will be discussing Multicast. What is multicast? Why it is useful? What are advantages and disadvantages of Multicast and all Theory about Multicast related topics and some configurations. This section is divided into many topics which are listed below. You can find all into Multicast Label.

Topics included:

Multicast Address Ranges
Mapping of Multicast IP address to Mac address
Distribution Trees :
Source Tree
Shared Tree
PIM Dense Mode
PIM Sparse Mode
PIM Sparse Dense Mode
RPF Check
Bootstrap (BSR)

Let’s see Types of Communications:
Unicast – One to one
Broadcast – One to All

In this two modes of communication, We don’t have any method of communication. Where we can address specified group of host.

Multicast – One to Many  (Specific host form Group)

Unicast  Vs Multicast

 Multicast - is the delivery of a single stream or information to a group of destination host simultaneously in a single transmission from the source creating copies automatically in other network using Network Devices like routers for efficient bandwidth utilization.

For example Radio:
                As you want to listen Radio , you will tune to particular Radio frequency and you can listen it. It’s same in multicast, you can join the multicast group you will access the real time applications.
Multicast is majorly used in Real time applications like, Voice, Video, Stock Broking applications, etc.

Why Multicast:
–    Used when sending same data to multiple receivers
      Better bandwidth utilization
      Used when addresses of receivers unknown
      Used when simultaneous delivery of information for a group of receivers is required

 Plz comment if you like the post... We will be discussing  further topics in coming posts...
For any queries,Comment with your mail id... Will revert you soon   

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

MAIPU - Configuration for QOS and IPSLA

Maipu configuration Example – QOS , IPSLA.

Here we have one example, How to configure Maipu router for QOS, IPSLA and SNMP traps. I think this configuration template you can use as reference.

Functions Included : 
QOS  – LLQ + CBWFQ + Traffic shaping.
 IP SLA – Jitter,ICMPEcho,ICMP Path Jitter, Flow statistics,UDP Echo.
SNMP traps

After doing  below configuration,  you can monitor Maipu device from your NMS. Make sure that Maipu MIBs are integrated in your NMS.

Device used: Maipu 1800

Configuration :

Building Configuration...done

! Current configuration : 5621 bytes
! Last configuration change at UTC THU APR 14 18:56:15 2011
! Flash config last updated at UTC THU JAN 01 01:24:26 1970
! Configuration version 0.18

!software version 6.1.38(JSJR-35)(integrity)
!software image file flash0: /system/rp5-c-6.1.38(JSJR-35).bin
!compiled on Jan  4 2011, 12:34:35

hostname XXXX
service timestamps debug datetime
service timestamps log datetime
service taskname debug
service taskname log
no service password-encrypt
no service new-encrypt
service login-secure
enable timeout 0

enable password OW encrypt

no exception reboot

ip mef

ip load-sharing per-destination

ip flow enable

ip access-list extended 1001
 10 permit ip host
ip access-list extended 1002
 10 permit ip any host
ip access-list extended xx
 10 permit ip host any

vlan 1
 description default
 port 0-7 untagged

class-map match-all xx
  match access-group xx
class-map match-all snmp
  match access-group 1001
class-map match-all telnet
  match access-group 1002
policy-map test
 class xx
  priority 1000
 class snmp
  priority 2000
 class telnet
  bandwidth 1000
 class class-default
  shape average 1000000
policy-map test1
 class class-default
  set qos-group 1

interface fastethernet0
 ip address
 service-policy input test1

interface fastethernet0.1
 ip address
 encapsulation dot1q 1
 traffic-shape 1000000 10000

interface fastethernet1
 ip address
 service-policy output test
 traffic-shape 1000000 50000

interface fastethernet1.1

interface null0

router rip
 version 2
 network fastethernet0
 no auto-summary

ip route
ip route
ip route

line vty 0 15
 exec-timeout 0 0
 no login

ntp master 8
ntp authenticate
ntp authentication-key 520915 md5 SYSZXZ encrypt

check cpu enable
check cpu time-interval 1

snmp-server start
snmp-server view default include
snmp-server community public view default ro
snmp-server host traps community public version 2
snmp-server host traps community public version 2
snmp-server host traps community public version 2
snmp-server enable traps bgp established
snmp-server enable traps bgp backward-transition
snmp-server enable traps frame-relay dlci-status-change
snmp-server enable traps frame-relay pvc-connect-status-change
snmp-server enable traps frame-relay pvc-connect-status-notify
snmp-server enable traps ospf if-authen-failure
snmp-server enable traps ospf virtif-authen-failure
snmp-server enable traps ospf if-config-error
snmp-server enable traps ospf virtif-config-error
snmp-server enable traps ospf if-state-change
snmp-server enable traps ospf virtif-state-change
snmp-server enable traps ospf nbr-state-change
snmp-server enable traps ospf virtnbr-state-change
snmp-server enable traps ospf if-rx-bad-packet
snmp-server enable traps ospf virtif-rx-bad-packet
snmp-server enable traps ospf tx-retransmit
snmp-server enable traps ospf virtif-tx-retransmit
snmp-server enable traps ospf originate-lsa
snmp-server enable traps ospf max-age-lsa
snmp-server enable traps ospf lsdb-approaching-overflow
snmp-server enable traps ospf lsdb-overflow
snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication
snmp-server enable traps snmp coldstart
snmp-server enable traps snmp warmstart
snmp-server enable traps snmp linkdown
snmp-server enable traps snmp linkup
snmp-server enable traps snmp enterprise snmp-agent-up
snmp-server enable traps snmp enterprise snmp-agent-down
snmp-server enable traps snmp enterprise rmon-rising
snmp-server enable traps snmp enterprise rmon-falling
snmp-server enable traps veth remote-status
snmp-server enable traps remote-ping probe-failed
snmp-server enable traps remote-ping test-failed
snmp-server enable traps remote-ping test-complete
snmp-server enable traps vrf

rtr enable

rtr 1 jitter
 set dest-ipaddr dest-port 200 g711alaw
 number-of-history-kept 100
 CreatedTime WED JAN 26 17:12:38 2011
 LatestModifiedTime THU JAN 01 01:38:09 1970


rtr 2 icmpecho
 set 1 70 2
 number-of-history-kept 100
 CreatedTime MON JAN 19 16:58:24 1970
 LatestModifiedTime THU JAN 01 01:38:32 1970


rtr 3 icmp-path-echo
 set dest-ipaddr source-ipaddr
 number-of-history-kept 90
 CreatedTime TUE MAR 15 19:21:11 2011
 LatestModifiedTime THU APR 14 18:55:47 2011


rtr 4 icmp-path-jitter
 set dest-ipaddr
 number-of-history-kept 100
 CreatedTime THU APR 14 18:53:12 2011
 LatestModifiedTime THU APR 14 18:53:34 2011


rtr 5 flow-statistics
 flow-statistics interface fastethernet0 interval 10
 CreatedTime THU APR 14 18:53:59 2011
 LatestModifiedTime THU APR 14 18:54:20 2011


rtr 6 udpecho
 set dest-ipaddr dest-port 300
 number-of-history-kept 100
 CreatedTime THU APR 14 18:54:36 2011
 LatestModifiedTime THU APR 14 18:54:53 2011


rtr group 1
 member 3

rtr schedule 1 entity 1 start now ageout 900 life forever

rtr schedule 2 entity 2 start now ageout 900 life forever

rtr schedule 4 entity 4 start now ageout 900 life forever

rtr schedule 5 entity 5 start now ageout 900 life forever

rtr schedule 6 entity 6 start now ageout 900 life forever

rtr schedule 10 group 1 start now ageout 900 life forever

rtr responder

1800#sh ver
               MyPower (R) Operating System Software
MP1800 system image file (flash0: /system/rp5-c-6.1.38(JSJR-35).bin), version 6.1.38(JSJR-35)(integr
ity), Compiled on Jan  4 2011, 12:34:35
Copyright (C) 1999 Maipu Communication Technology Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

MP1800 Version Information
        System ID           : 00017a0c6124
        Hardware Model      : MPC8270 with 128 MBytes SDRAM, 32 MBytes flash
        Hardware Version    : 020(Hotswap Unsupported)
        MPU CPLD Version    : 001
        Monitor Version     : 2.18
        Software Version    : 6.1.38(JSJR-35)(integrity)
        Software Image File : flash0: /system/rp5-c-6.1.38(JSJR-35).bin
        Compiled            : Jan  4 2011, 12:34:35

System Uptime is 1 week 5 days

I am using this configuration for my use. I am sharing this, May be it will be useful for you ..
Plz let me know if you have any queries.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

MAIPU 1800 Case study for Roaming/Mobility

Requirement: Here Company require immediate solution to setup a roaming office for promotional events with all major services as in branch office.Many time we come across with this kind of requirement and limitation of physical wired uplink immediately.  The innovation of the 3G technology provides the good chances for enterprise networking and 3G-based applications, becomes one ideal choice for the enterprise network.
Compared with the fixed  wired line access it provides us more benefits-
Reduce access cost per user
Improve mobility and flexibility, enable mobile/roaming service and transaction Simplify and fasten deployment and maintaining.
Here you can see a live tested scenario for one company for same requirement.

Topology : 

Included Function
3G interface as the uplink.                                     
  --3G USB will be connected to router.
    Compatible models: HUAWEI EC1260 /1261 (dated May- 2011)
  --USB 3G interface will act as WAN and all LAN network devices can access the internet.
IPSEC tunnel
  --MP1800 is using certificate from HQ VPN gateway.
  -- IPSEC tunnel is established between MP1800 and HQ VPN gateway.
  --VOIP calls/data is going form VPN tunnel.
VOIP communication
  -- VOIP call , both way communication from MP1800 fxs to HQ fxs.
  --PC/Laptop is using wireless network to access the internet resource via the MP1800 router.
  --PC/Laptop and wireless printer are in the same LAN network, so Laptop can print by that printer without any wired connection.

Configuration Template

3G wan link configuration template 
ip access-list standard 1
 10 permit any

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

chat-script g3dia ATDT
chat-script g3cdma2000connection AT^PPPCFG="9323863248","9323863248"

interface cellular0
 encapsulation ppp
 ppp pap sent-username 9323863248 password 9323863248
 ip address negotiated
 bandwidth 384
 load-interval 30
 dialer in-band
 dialer idle-timeout 0            ### interface should not time out ###
 dialer-group 1
 dialer string #777
 script connection g3cdma2000connection
 script dialer g3dia
 ip nat outside

ip route cellular0  ### this routes must be configured, otherwise the 3G interface will not dial-up ###
For dialing – ping to some IP
Router# ping –t

IPSEC certification template

Get the certification from HQ VPN gateway certification server:
crypto ca identity XXXX
 enrollment url 221.10.X.X
 exit  ###define the identity profile XXXX which is the IP address: 221.10.x.x ###
crypto ca authenticate xxxx  ### after this command you will get the root certification by following###

    % The Root CA Certificate has the following attributes:
  Serial Number: C1661E12562D1DBFBE41
  Subject: CN=maipu, OU=maipu communication, O=maipu, ST=sichuan, L=chengdu, C=china
  Issuer : CN=maipu, OU=maipu communication, O=maipu, ST=sichuan, L=chengdu, C=china
    Start date: 2004-12-14 10:23:25
    End   date: 2014-12-13 10:23:25
  Usage: Sign


% Do you accept this certificate(Yes|No)?Y
% PKI: Get CA certificate success.

crypto ca enroll maipu 512 partner_ind_test   ### Certification request from remote server###
% Please input request password:****      ### Input password xxxx ####
    % The Certificate DN will be: CN= partner_ind_test
    % Waiting,Generate private key now,Key length 512!
    % Generating .. Done.
% PKI: Certificate enroll success.

IPSEC tunnel+ NAT template

ip access-list extended 1001
 10 deny ip
 20 permit ip any any

interface fastethernet0
 ip address
 ip nat inside
## LAN Network###

ip nat inside source list 1001 interface cellular0 overload

crypto tunnel delhi
 local interface cellular0
 peer address x.x.x.x
 set authentication rsa-sig
 set sec-level basic
 set auto-up

crypto policy p1
 flow ip permit
### this flow will permit local network communicate with each other ###

crypto policy p2
 flow x.x.x.x ip tunnel delhi
##In Maipu we define Flow and map the interesting traffic to crypto tunnel ###
## this flow is permit from LAN to HQ core network ##

VOIP Configuration Template
callrouting-conf  ### type this command in Global configuration to enter in VOIP config mode ##
 dial-peer 1 pots
  destination-pattern 00911081
  port 1/0

 dial-peer 2 voip
  destination-pattern xx.
  session-target  sip-server

 fxs-card 1 
  channel 0 0 payload 4
  channel 0 0 enable

 code-mode mode1
 h323 start slow
 h323 send-dtmf h245-string
 h323 call-diversion default
 h323 h245Tunnel off
 h323 bearer-cap 3100hz
 h323 fill-send-complete enable
 h323 grq_interval 40
 h323 call-thrust-ttl 10
 call-transfer disable
 call-transfer consultation
 user-config enable

interface loopback0

interface fastethernet0
 sip-gateway voip interface
 sip-gateway voip proxy x.x.x.x
 sip-gateway voip registrar x.x.x.x
 sip-gateway voip password 123456

WIFI Configuration template:

ssid-security-profile wpa2
 secpol wpa2
 authpol psk ascii password
 ciphpol aes

interface dot11radio0
 antenna rx left
 antenna tx right
 beacon period 100
 channel auto
  security wpa2
  clientlimit 3
  fragment 2000
  vlan 1

interface dot11radio0.1
 ip address
 encapsulation dot1q 1

ip dhcp pool wlan

Show Outputs :

Show int cellular 0   ### After generating the traffic, Cellular interface got IP ###
     line protocol is up
     Type: PPP
     Internet address:
     Destination Internet address:
     Metric: 0, MTU: 1500, BW: 384 Kbps, DLY: 100000 usec, VRF: global
     Reliability 255/255, Txload 30/255, Rxload 30/255
     Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
     30 seconds input rate 46000 bits/sec, 50 packets/sec
     30 seconds output rate 46000 bits/sec, 50 packets/sec
     17645 packets received; 18108 packets sent
     0 multicast packets received
     0 multicast packets sent
     0 input errors; 0 output errors
     0 collisions; 1 dropped
      encap-type: simply PPP
      Rx chars: 2043875, Tx chars 2002050
      Rx overrun 0, Tx underrun 0

### IPSEC status ###
#sh crypto ike sa   
localaddr                 peeraddr                 peer-identity         negotiation-state                          sa-id        STATE_QUICK_I2            10        STATE_MAIN_I4             9

#sh crypto ipsec sa
policy name : p2
  f (src, dst, protocol, src port, dst port) :  ip  any  any
  local tunnel endpoint : remote tunnel endpoint :
  the pairs of ESP ipsec sa : id : 10, algorithm : DES HMAC-SHA1-96
    inbound esp ipsec sa :  spi : 0Xd3380201(3543663105)
                current input 16326 packets, 1173 kbytes
                encapsulation mode : Tunnel
                replay protection : ON
                remaining lifetime (seconds/kbytes) : 27533/4606826
                uptime is 0 hour 21 minute 7 second
    outbound esp ipsec sa :  spi : 0Xeae10ed0(3940617936)
                current output 16719 packets, 1057 kbytes
                encapsulation mode : Tunnel
                replay protection : ON
                remaining lifetime (seconds/kbytes) : 27533/4606942
                uptime is 0 hour 21 minute 7 second


#sh sip call detail
   sid       aid   cid    did    callingNum        calledNum        state            connTime
   c         34    17     18     8888888888        0289756          ST_CONNECT       00:00:05   
   Total active sip call: 1, connected: 1

IOS Details :

show ver
               MyPower (R) Operating System Software
MP1800 system image file (flash0: /flash/rp10-i-6.2.8.pck), version 6.2.8(integrity), Compiled on Ju
n 12 2010, 15:59:42
Copyright (C) 2010 Maipu Communication Technology Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

MP1800 Version Information
                System ID           : 00017ab5dc4c
                Hardware Model                    : RM1800-31W with 256 MBytes SDRAM, 32 MBytes flash
                Hardware Version    : 002(Hotswap Unsupported)
                MPU CPLD Version    : 003
                Monitor Version     : 1.17
                Software Version    : 6.2.8(integrity)
                Software Image File : flash0: /flash/rp10-i-6.2.8.pck
                Compiled                  : Jun 12 2010, 15:59:42

System Uptime is 1 hour 51 minutes 21 seconds

This document is explained about the configuration of above solution using Maipu MP1800 router.

Plz provide your feedback on same…

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